Types of visual impairment
There are a range of eye conditions that can affect people. This
page describes some of the most common eye conditions and provides
simulated pictures of what people with different sight impairments
This image demonstrates what people with normal vision would
Select from the following eye conditions for an example
of what people would see:
Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the normal fluid pressure
inside the eyes slowly rises, leading to vision loss or even
Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that blurs the
sharp, central vision you need for "straight-ahead" activities such
as reading, sewing, and driving. AMD affects the macula, the part
of the eye that allows you to see fine detail. AMD causes no
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects
vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very
common in older people and by age 80, more than half of all adults
either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a
leading cause of blindness in adults. It is caused by changes in
the blood vessels of the retina.
Myopia is also known as nearsightedness or shortsightedness. Those
with myopia see nearby objects clearly but distant objects appear
blurred. This is the opposite of the defect hypermetropia, also
know as "farsightedness" or "long-sightedness".
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of genetic eye conditions.
People with RP first experience night blindness and this can later
lead to a reduction of the peripheral visual field (known as tunnel
vision). Sometimes RP can lead to a loss of central vision.